Here you will find links to websites with information about and examples of common English proverbs.
This is a 680-proverb list from The Phrase Finder. It contains links to the meaning and origin of each proverb. The site also has an idiom list and a phrase thesaurus.
An enjoyable way to learn proverbs is visually. The link takes you to the page Google gives you when search on Proverbs > Images. Click on the images that interest you.
On this IST IST = International School Tutors site there are various quizzes to learn about and test yourself on common English proverbs.